Thursday, 12 January 2017

Accounting for the ‘Little Divergence’

This blog post was written by
AlexandraM. de Pleijt,
post doc at Utrecht University

What drove economic growth in pre-industrial Europe, 1300-1800? 


The Industrial Revolution is arguably the most important break in global economic history, separating a world of at best very modest improvements in real incomes from the period of ‘modern economic growth’. Thanks to pioneering work of van Leeuwen and van Zanden (2012) and Broadberry et al (2015) this phenomenon has recently been linked to the study of long-term trends in per capita GDP. One of the questions is to what extent growth before 1750 helps to explain the break that occurs after that date; the idea of a ‘Little Divergence’ within Europe has been suggested as part of the explanation why the Industrial Revolution occurred in this part of the world. 

This ‘Little Divergence’ is the process whereby the North Sea Area (the UK and the Low Countries) developed into the most prosperous and dynamic part of the Continent. The new series on per capita GDP demonstrate that the Low Countries and England witnessed almost continuous growth between the 14th and the 18th century, whereas in other parts of the continent real incomes went down in the long run (Italy), or stagnated at best (Portugal, Spain, Germany, Sweden and Poland) (see Figure 1). As a consequence, at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the 1750s, the level of GDP per capita of Holland and England had increased to 2355 and 1666 (international) dollars of 1990 respectively, compared to 876 and 919 dollar in 1347 (just before the arrival of the Black Death), and 1454 and 1134 in 1500 (Bolt and van Zanden 2014). 

Gross Domestic Product per capita, 1300-1800. 
Notes and sources: See Bolt and van Zanden (2014)


Although the ‘Little Divergence’ between the North Sea area and the rest of the continent has been established, very little is known about the causes of this phase of pre-industrial growth. Why were the Low Countries and England already long before 1800 able to break through Malthusian constraints and generate a process of almost continuous economic growth? Various hypotheses have been suggested. One of the explanations focuses on institutional changes. The rise of socio-political institutions (in particular the rise of active parliaments) and demographic institutions (notably the European Marriage Pattern) were favourable for growth in the Low Countries and England (de Moor and van Zanden 2010, van Zanden et al 2012). Other scholars have stressed the importance of the growth of overseas (e.g. Acemoglu et al 2005) – a hypothesis which is supported by Allen’s (2003) study explaining differences in real wages in Europe between 1300 and 1800. Finally, others have indicated the importance of increases in agricultural productivity (Overton 1996) and human capital formation (Baten and van Zanden 2008).

In a new EHES working paper paper, we have tested the various hypotheses explaining pre-industrial growth in early modern Europe using new data on per capita GDP, political institutions (active parliaments), human capital formation (per capita book consumption), productivity in agriculture (yield ratio’s), and international trade (per capita size of the merchant fleet). Our empirical findings show that GDP growth before the Industrial Revolution was mainly driven by human capital formation. We moreover show that institutional changes (the rise of active Parliaments) were closely related to pre-industrial growth.


The working paper can be downloaded here: http://www.ehes.org/EHES_104.pdf


References:

Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. “The Rise of Europe: Atlantic Trade, Institutional Change and Growth.” American Economic Review 95, no. 3 (2005): 546-79.

Allen, Robert C. “Progress and Poverty in Early Modern Europe.” Economic History Review LVI, no. 3 (2003): 403-43.

Baten, Joerg, and Jan Luiten van Zanden. “Book Production and the Onset of Modern Economic Growth.” Journal of Economic Growth 13, no. 3 (2008): 217-35.

Bolt, Jutta, and Jan Luiten van Zanden. “The Maddison Project: collaborative research on
historical national accounts.” Economic History Review 67, no. 3 (2014): 627-51.

Broadberry, Stephen N., Bruce Campbell, Alex Klein, Mark Overton, and Bas van Leeuwen. British Economic Growth, 1270-1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015

De Moor, Tine, and Jan Luiten van Zanden. “Girl Power: The European Marriage Pattern and Labour Markets in the North Sea Region in the Late Medieval and Early Modern Period.” Economic History Review 63, no. 1 (2010a): 1-33.

Overton, Mark. Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian Economy 1500-1850. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Van Zanden, Jan Luiten, and Bas van Leeuwen. “Persistent but not Consistent: The Growth of National Income in Holland, 1347-1807.” Explorations in Economic History 49, no. 2 (2012): 119-30.

Van Zanden, Jan Luiten, Eltjo Buringh, and Maarten Bosker. “The Rise and Decline of European Parliaments, 1188-1789.” Economic History Review 65, no. 3 (2012): 835-61.

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  27. We Offers Financial Consulting To Client, Companies Seeking Debt / Loan Financing And Seeking For Working Capital To Start A New Business Or To Expand Existing Business. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com )

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  31. Are you a business man or woman? Are you in any financial mess or Do you need funds to start up your own business? Do you need a loan to start a nice Small Scale and medium business? Do you have a low credit score and you are finding it hard to obtain capital loan from local banks and other financial institutes?. Interested applicants should Contact us via email: PergoCF@cheerful.com ( PergoCF@qualityservice.com ) PergoCF@gmail.com

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  32. WE OFFER ALL KIND OF LOANS - APPLY FOR AFFORDABLE LOANS.

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  33. We Offers Financial Consulting To Client, Companies Seeking Debt / Loan Financing And Seeking For Working Capital To Start A New Business Or To Expand Existing Business. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com )

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  41. Never give up in life they all say no cure to HSV 2 which is a big lie I have pass through many process also i never believe there is really cure to HERPES until I meet Dr.Ehiaguna the doctor that have been helping many people for many years, I come across this doctor online when I was searching for cure online I found out about this man, and to my greatest surprise this man have the herbal medicine which I have been looking for years I explain my problem to him through the email I found on someone who testify about him also, Dr.Ehiaguna write me a reply and explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 4 days and I took it according to the way Dr.Ehiaguna instructed, I was so happy after two week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative that was the day I have the tears of joy you can also get in contact with my doctor through his email now drehiaguna@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him +2348073908953. And He also have herbs medicine to cured the following diseases; eczema,urethra wart,chronic problems.Herpes, Cancer, Als,Hepatitis, Diabetes, HPV,Infections,ulcer  ETC

    ReplyDelete
  42. We are Providers of all types of BG and SBLC with the best workable procedures. Our BG/SBLC ranges from MT799, MT760,(Both two way confirmation), MT103/23, MT103 (Both can be one way confirmation and two way confirmation) in USD and EUROS. Issuing Bank ranges from Top world 25 banks with face value ranging from 1M EUROS/USD to 10B EUROS/USD

    BROKERS ARE WELCOME & 100% PROTECTED!!!
    Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and cases to our attention and in complete confidence we will work together for the benefits of all parties involve.

    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded, loan financing, please let me know if you are interested in any of our services, by providing you with yearly renewable leased bank instruments. We work directly with issuing bank lease providers, this Instrument can be monetized on your behalf for 100% funding.

    We are ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days, if interested do not hesitate to contact me direct. [via Contact Form Below]

    Regards

    Dimitrij Conradi
    Email: dimi.conradi1970@gmail.com
    conradi.dimitrij@bk.ru
    Skype: conradi.dimitrij@bk.ru
    WhatsApp: +90 552 674 4696

    ReplyDelete
  43. We are Providers of all types of BG and SBLC with the best workable procedures. Our BG/SBLC ranges from MT799, MT760,(Both two way confirmation), MT103/23, MT103 (Both can be one way confirmation and two way confirmation) in USD and EUROS. Issuing Bank ranges from Top world 25 banks with face value ranging from 1M EUROS/USD to 10B EUROS/USD

    BROKERS ARE WELCOME & 100% PROTECTED!!!
    Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and cases to our attention and in complete confidence we will work together for the benefits of all parties involve.

    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded, loan financing, please let me know if you are interested in any of our services, by providing you with yearly renewable leased bank instruments. We work directly with issuing bank lease providers, this Instrument can be monetized on your behalf for 100% funding.

    We are ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days, if interested do not hesitate to contact me direct. [via Contact Form Below]

    Regards

    Dimitrij Conradi
    Email: dimi.conradi1970@gmail.com
    conradi.dimitrij@bk.ru
    Skype: conradi.dimitrij@bk.ru
    WhatsApp: +90 552 674 4696

    ReplyDelete
  44. Bitcoin Crypto Investment
    My investment experience with bitcoins. 
    There is no doubt that bitcoin is a trend today and there is a lot of success in the business world, because people prefer to save money in their wallets than in banks, last summer I lost about $54,000 due to the fall in the price of bitcoins. A colleague at work who knew my suffering in the field of bitcoin savings led me (aulakhkrupinder@gmail.com   ) where I can store and invest my bitcoins with more than 100% profit margin. At first I was skeptical, so I decided to try it for just $500. I was amazed after 12 hours I made another $1,500 and was able to make an immediate withdrawal and since then I have invested and made more money. Investing bitcoins with aulakhkrupinder@gmail.com   changed my life when I made more than $176,000. You can contact :aulakhkrupinder@gmail.com  to Enjoy endless possibilities.

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  45. Hackers with the above email (perrythomas827@gmail.com) its at it again! Cool way to have financial freedom!!! Are you tired of living a poor life, here is the opportunity you have been waiting for. Get the new ATM BLANK CARD that can hack any ATM MACHINE and withdraw money from any account. You do not require anybody’s account number before you can use it. Although you and I knows that its illegal,there is no risk using it. It has SPECIAL FEATURES, that makes the machine unable to detect this very card,and its transaction is can’t be traced .You can use it anywhere in the world. With this card,you can withdraw the sum of $5,000 a day. So to get the card,reach the hackers via email address : perrythomas827@gmail.com..please don’t contact him if you are not serious minded

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    ReplyDelete
  46. GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY/LEASE
    AT THE BEST RATES AVAILABLE

    We offer certified and verifiable bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.

    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%

    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M

    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded, loan financing by providing you with yearly. RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days

    Name : Scott james

    Email : Inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
    Skype: Inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  47. We are specialist in providing direct and genuine provider of BG, SBLC, MTN, CD, LC , DLC, Non collateral loan, confirmable Bank Draft and other financial assistance from AAA rated bank (Prime Bank) our Leasing price of (5.0% + 0.5% + X) of face value of the instrument. The financial instrument can be invested in High Yield Trading Program or Private Placement Programme (PPP). thus our Bank Guarantee lease , the Direct Bank Guarantee and Indirect Bank Guarantee, which is used as Bid Bond, Payment Guarantees, Letter of Indemnity,Guarantee Securing Credit Line, Advance Payment Guarantees, Performance Bond Guarantee E.T.C.

    We are RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days, we deliver promptly as set forth by our agreement. we have direct contact with the principal, mandate and brokers. we ensure unequaled service and will be glad to share our working procedures with you upon request to help us proceed towards closing deals effectively.

    For further inquiry contact
    Name: Sekaran Sebastian
    E-mail: bglease.sekaran@gmail.com
    Skype ID: bglease.sekaran@outlook.com

    Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved.

    ReplyDelete
  48. We have direct and efficient providers of Bank Guarantee (BG’s), Insurance Guarantees,Confirmable Bank Drafts, Standby Letters of Credit (SBLC) medium term note (MTN) and Third Party Guarantees. which are specifically for sell/lease at leasing price of 4+2% /32+2% for selling price.
    If you are a potential Investor or principal looking to raise capital, we will be happy to answer any questions that you have about this opportunity and to provide you with details regarding these services.

    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded, by providing you with yearly renewable leased bank instruments. We work directly with the providers of these instruments.


    DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS:

    1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG) or Standby Letter of Credit (SBLC)
    2. Total Face Value: Euro/USD 100,000.00 – Euro/USD 50,000,000,000.00
    3. Issuing Bank: HSBC Bank London, Barclays Bank London, Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt etc.
    4. Age: One Year and One Day (With the option of Rolls and Extension)
    5. Leasing Fee: 4% + 2% [negociable]
    6. Delivery: Bank to Bank Swift MT799 and/or MT760
    7. Payment: MT103
    8. Hard Copy: By Bank Bonded Courier within 7 banking days after delivery of Swift.  

    Contact: Name: SAMRI NAZEER

    Email: INFO.ACEFINANCELTD@GMAIL.COM  
    Skype:INFO.ACEFINANCELTD@GMAIL.COM

    ReplyDelete
  49. GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE(BG) LETTER OF CREDIT(LC) BUSINESS LOAN AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC)
    AT THE BEST RATES AVAILABLE

    We offer certified and verifiable bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.

    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M-10B
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%

    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M-10B

    MONETIZATION LTV 70%

    LOAN INTEREST RATE:3% OF THE TOTAL FACE AMOUNT

    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded, loan financing by providing you with yearly. we ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    Email : financeandstrategyltd@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  50. I am direct to a provider who has recently issued banking instruments for a couple of my clients the provider is 100% check-able you can do your due diligence on them. I work directly with the provider.

    We offer certified and verifiable bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.

    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%

    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M

    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded, loan financing by providing you with yearly. RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days

    Contact Name: Alex James
    Email:signetukfinanceplc@gmail.com
    SKYPE:signetukfinanceplc@hotmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  51. Do you need an urgent loan of any kind? Loans to liquidate debts or need to loan to improve your business have you been rejected by any other banks and financial institutions? Do you need a loan or a mortgage? This is the place to look, we are here to solve all your financial problems. We borrow money for the public. Need financial help with a bad credit in need of money. To pay for a commercial investment at a reasonable rate of 3%, let me use this method to inform you that we are providing reliable and helpful assistance and we will be ready to lend you. Contact us today by email: daveloganloanfirm@gmail.com Call/Text: +1(501)800-0690 And whatsapp: +1 (315) 640-3560

    NEED A LOAN?
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    ReplyDelete
  52. We offer Cash & Asset Backed Financial Instruments such as Bank Guarantee and Standby Letter of Credit (BG/SBLC) for lease and sale, and loan facilities. We offer Verifiable Bank Instruments via SWIFT from genuine providers capable of taking up time bound transactions. Issuance is by AA rated Bank in Europe, Middle East, Asia and USA.

    Our Instruments are easily monetized on your behalf for project funding. Our rates depend on the face value of the instrument needed, we can also monetize the same BG/SBLC for up to 100% cash proceeds if you do not have a monetizer.

    Please contact me for full details:

    Email: inquiry.trustedfinance@gmail.com

    Skype : inquiry.trustedfinance@gmail.com

    Name: GARVAN MAIREAD

    Whatsapp : +15137819374

    ReplyDelete
  53. (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
    Dear Sir/Ma,
    We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.
    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
    loan financing by providing you with yearly.
    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : Scott james
    Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
    Skype : Inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  54. (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
    Dear Sir/Ma,
    We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.
    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
    loan financing by providing you with yearly.
    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : Scott james
    Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
    Skype : Inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete

  55. I got my already programmed and blank ATM card to
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    ReplyDelete
  56. Hordle Finance B.V (UK) Limited provides personal loans/business loans/trade finance/import & export loans/project loans to companies of all sizes ranging from individuals, companies and trader's globally. Just one simple process, We make financing your business growth simple, transparent, and fair.

    Fast funding: quick funding decisions and set-up
    Hassle free experience: easy to use digital interface
    Help in real-time: personal customer support
    Straightforward costs: no hidden fees
    Simple approval process
    Low Interest rate of 2%
    No credit checks/collateral required
    Bad credit accepted
    Flexible repayment schedules
    Client information sheet & KYC required for all loan applicant irrespective of location/country
    Loan Duration from 1 year - 20 years maximum
    Grace period of 12 - 24 months


    Simple paperwork, quick approvals, and flexible repayment schedules. For further details, contact us via email, telephone, Skype. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome onboard bring their clients and work with us and are 100% protected adequately protected. In complete confidence, We shall work together for the benefits of all parties involved, Looking forward to rendering the best of our services to all esteemed clientele globally.


    Hordle Finance B.V
    Website: https://www.hordlefinance.com/
    Email: finance@hordlefinance.com
    Tel: +44 2038-076-070
    Whatsapp: +44 7901-191-353
    ONE BANK STREET, CANARY WHARF,
    41 Tower Hill, LONDON, GB-LND E14 4SG
    Company Registration No. FC029166

    ReplyDelete
  57. Hordle Finance B.V (UK) Limited provides personal loans/business loans/trade finance/import & export loans/project loans to companies of all sizes ranging from individuals, companies and trader's globally. Just one simple process, We make financing your business growth simple, transparent, and fair.

    Fast funding: quick funding decisions and set-up
    Hassle free experience: easy to use digital interface
    Help in real-time: personal customer support
    Straightforward costs: no hidden fees
    Simple approval process
    Low Interest rate of 2%
    No credit checks/collateral required
    Bad credit accepted
    Flexible repayment schedules
    Client information sheet & KYC required for all loan applicant irrespective of location/country
    Loan Duration from 1 year - 20 years maximum
    Grace period of 12 - 24 months


    Simple paperwork, quick approvals, and flexible repayment schedules. For further details, contact us via email, telephone, Skype. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome onboard bring their clients and work with us and are 100% protected adequately protected. In complete confidence, We shall work together for the benefits of all parties involved, Looking forward to rendering the best of our services to all esteemed clientele globally.


    Hordle Finance B.V
    Website: https://www.hordlefinance.com/
    Email: finance@hordlefinance.com
    Tel: +44 2038-076-070
    Whatsapp: +44 7901-191-353
    ONE BANK STREET, CANARY WHARF,
    41 Tower Hill, LONDON, GB-LND E14 4SG
    Company Registration No. FC029166

    ReplyDelete
  58. Hordle Finance B.V (UK) Limited provides personal loans/business loans/trade finance/import & export loans/project loans to companies of all sizes ranging from individuals, companies and trader's globally. Just one simple process, We make financing your business growth simple, transparent, and fair.

    Fast funding: quick funding decisions and set-up
    Hassle free experience: easy to use digital interface
    Help in real-time: personal customer support
    Straightforward costs: no hidden fees
    Simple approval process
    Low Interest rate of 2%
    No credit checks/collateral required
    Bad credit accepted
    Flexible repayment schedules
    Client information sheet & KYC required for all loan applicant irrespective of location/country
    Loan Duration from 1 year - 20 years maximum
    Grace period of 12 - 24 months


    Simple paperwork, quick approvals, and flexible repayment schedules. For further details, contact us via email, telephone, Skype. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome onboard bring their clients and work with us and are 100% protected adequately protected. In complete confidence, We shall work together for the benefits of all parties involved, Looking forward to rendering the best of our services to all esteemed clientele globally.


    Hordle Finance B.V
    Website: https://www.hordlefinance.com/
    Email: finance@hordlefinance.com
    Tel: +44 2038-076-070
    Whatsapp: +44 7901-191-353
    ONE BANK STREET, CANARY WHARF,
    41 Tower Hill, LONDON, GB-LND E14 4SG
    Company Registration No. FC029166

    ReplyDelete

  59. Email: int.hackers002@gmail.com
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    ReplyDelete
  60. if you are in financial difficulties or you find it difficult to clear all your bills or you are in big debt because of scammers, now is the time to put an end to all this happenings in your life,we want to introduce you to a real and legit bitcoin investment platform where you can earn 10 times your invested funds weekly and profit are 100% guaranteed for example you invest 1000 Euros we are capable to earn 10,000 Euros for you in 7 days. Interested Viewers should contact us via whats-app: +27633586789 or email: wilsontradeszone@gmail.com to get started

    ReplyDelete
  61. GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
    Dear Sir/Ma,
    We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.
    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
    loan financing by providing you with yearly.
    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : Scott james
    Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
    Skype : Inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  62. GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
    Dear Sir/Ma,
    We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.
    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
    loan financing by providing you with yearly.
    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : Scott james
    Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
    Skype : Inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  63. We are direct providers of Fresh Cut BG, SBLC and MTN which are specifically for lease/sales, our bank instrument can be engage in PPP Trading, Discounting, signature project(s) such as Aviation, Agriculture, Petroleum, Telecommunication, construction of Dams, Bridges, Real Estate and all kind of projects. We do not have any broker chain in our offer or get involved in chauffeur driven offers. We deliver with time and precision as sethforth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable, below is our instrument description. The procedure is very simple; the instrument will be reserved on euro clear to be verified by your bank, after verification an arrangement will be made for necessary bank documents and stock testing expenses, the cost of the Bank Guarantee/Standby Letter of Credit will be paid after the delivery of the MT760, Description OF INSTRUMENTS: 1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG/SBLC) 2. Total Face Value: Eur/USD 5M MIN and Eur/USD 10B MAX (Ten Billion EURO/USD). 3. Issuing Bank: HSBC Bank London, Barclay's bank London,Credit Suisse and Deutsche Bank Frankfurt. 4. Age: One Year, One Month 5. Purchasing Price: 32% of face value plus 2% commission fees Leasing Price: 4% of Face Value plus 1% commission fees. 6. Delivery: Bank to Bank swift. 7. Payment: MT-103 or MT760 8. Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days. We are ready to close leasing/Buying with any interested client in few banking days, if interested do not hesitate to contact me Name : PAUL DAVID Email: pauldavid20001@gmail.com Skype: P_david123@outlook.com whatsapp:+447921551354

    ReplyDelete
  64. GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
    We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.
    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
    loan financing by providing you with yearly.
    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : scott james
    Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
    Skype : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  65. DO YOU NEED A PERSONAL/BUSINESS/INVESTMENT LOAN? CONTACT US TODAY VIA WhatsApp +19292227023 Email drbenjaminfinance@gmail.com

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    ReplyDelete
  66. Do you need an urgent loan of any kind? Loans to liquidate debts or need to loan to improve your business have you been rejected by any other banks and financial institutions? Do you need a loan or a mortgage? This is the place to look, we are here to solve all your financial problems. We borrow money for the public. Need financial help with a bad credit in need of money. To pay for a commercial investment at a reasonable rate of 3%, let me use this method to inform you that we are providing reliable and helpful assistance and we will be ready to lend you. Contact us today by email: daveloganloanfirm@gmail.com Call/Text: +1(501)800-0690 And whatsapp: +1 (501) 214‑1395

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    ReplyDelete
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  68. GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
    We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.
    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
    loan financing by providing you with yearly.
    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : Thomas Wolfgang
    Email : inquiry.fastfunding@gmail.com
    Skype : inquiry.fastfunding@gmail.com

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